Главная » Файлы » Иностранные языки » Топики _ Доклады _ Сочинеия_Рефераты на английском языке |

History of math _MIDDLE AGES AND REVIVAL

05.12.2013, 18:54 | |

MIDDLE AGES AND REVIVALMedieval Europe. The Roman civilization has not left an appreciable trace in mathematics as was too involved in the solving of practical problems. A civilization developed in Europe of the early Middle Ages (around 400-1100 AD), was not productive for the opposite reason: the intellectual life has concentrated almost exclusively on theology and future life. The level of mathematical knowledge did not rise above arithmetics and simple sections from Euclid’s "Beginnings”. In Middle Ages the astrology was considered as the most important section of mathematics; astrologists named mathematicians. About 1100 in the West-European mathematics began almost three-century period of development saved by arabs and the Byzantian Greeks of a heritage of the Ancient world and the East. Europe has received the extensive mathematical literature because of arabs owned almost all works of ancient Greeks. Translation of these works into Latin promoted rise of mathematical researches. All great scientists of that time recognized, that scooped inspiration in works of Greeks. The first European mathematician deserving a mention became Leonardo Byzantian (Fibonacci). In the composition "the Book Abaca” (1202) he has acquainted Europeans with the Indо-Arabian figures and methods of calculations and also with the Arabian algebra. Within the next several centuries mathematical activity in Europe came down. Revival. Among the best geometers of Renaissance there were the artists developed idea of prospect which demanded geometry with converging parallel straight lines. The artist Leon Batista Alberty (1404-1472) has entered concepts of a projection and section. Rectilinear rays of light from an eye of the observer to various points of a represented stage form a projection; the section turns out at passage of a plane through a projection. That the drawn picture looked realistic, it should be such section. Concepts of a projection and section generated only mathematical questions. For example, what general geometrical properties the section and an initial stage, what properties of two various sections of the same projection, formed possess two various planes crossing a projection under various corners? From such questions also there was a projective geometry. Its founder - Z. Dezarg (1593-1662 AD) with the help of the proofs based on a projection and section, unified the approach to various types of conic sections which great Greek geometer Apollonius considered separately. I think that mathematics developed by attempts and mistakes. There is no perfect science today. Also math has own mistakes, but it aspires to be more accurate. A development of math goes thru a development of the society. Starting from counting on fingers, finishing on solving difficult problems, mathematics prolong it way of development. I suppose that it’s no people who can say what will be in 100-200 or 500 years. But everybody knows that math will get new level, higher one. It will be new high-tech level and new methods of solving today’s problems. May in the future some man will find mistakes in our thinking, but I think it’s good, it’s good that math will not stop. Medieval Europe. The Roman civilization has not left an appreciable trace in mathematics as was too involved in the solving of practical problems. A civilization developed in Europe of the early Middle Ages (around 400-1100 AD), was not productive for the opposite reason: the intellectual life has concentrated almost exclusively on theology and future life. The level of mathematical knowledge did not rise above arithmetics and simple sections from Euclid’s "Beginnings”. In Middle Ages the astrology was considered as the most important section of mathematics; astrologists named mathematicians. About 1100 in the West-European mathematics began almost three-century period of development saved by arabs and the Byzantian Greeks of a heritage of the Ancient world and the East. Europe has received the extensive mathematical literature because of arabs owned almost all works of ancient Greeks. Translation of these works into Latin promoted rise of mathematical researches. All great scientists of that time recognized, that scooped inspiration in works of Greeks. The first European mathematician deserving a mention became Leonardo Byzantian (Fibonacci). In the composition "the Book Abaca” (1202) he has acquainted Europeans with the Indо-Arabian figures and methods of calculations and also with the Arabian algebra. Within the next several centuries mathematical activity in Europe came down. Revival. Among the best geometers of Renaissance there were the artists developed idea of prospect which demanded geometry with converging parallel straight lines. The artist Leon Batista Alberty (1404-1472) has entered concepts of a projection and section. Rectilinear rays of light from an eye of the observer to various points of a represented stage form a projection; the section turns out at passage of a plane through a projection. That the drawn picture looked realistic, it should be such section. Concepts of a projection and section generated only mathematical questions. For example, what general geometrical properties the section and an initial stage, what properties of two various sections of the same projection, formed possess two various planes crossing a projection under various corners? From such questions also there was a projective geometry. Its founder - Z. Dezarg (1593-1662 AD) with the help of the proofs based on a projection and section, unified the approach to various types of conic sections which great Greek geometer Apollonius considered separately. I think that mathematics developed by attempts and mistakes. There is no perfect science today. Also math has own mistakes, but it aspires to be more accurate. A development of math goes thru a development of the society. Starting from counting on fingers, finishing on solving difficult problems, mathematics prolong it way of development. I suppose that it’s no people who can say what will be in 100-200 or 500 years. But everybody knows that math will get new level, higher one. It will be new high-tech level and new methods of solving today’s problems. May in the future some man will find mistakes in our thinking, but I think it’s good, it’s good that math will not stop. | |

Просмотров: 159 | Загрузок: 0 | |

Всего комментариев: 0 | |

Категории раздела

Друзья сайта